In Denmark typically there are two type of PhD position base on the funding. Normal PhD studentships (scholarship) and Industrial PhD fellowships. However, both types of PhD are for 3 years.
Finding PhD vacancies
For finding a studentship PhD position the candidates can find it in the website of the University wherein the application requirement for each particular posts are given (you can find some example of PhD student position in the Academic Career section). However, as soon as the PhD position terminates (after three years), if the student cannot find another job, he/she can get unemployment support (salary) from the state for a year.
The industrial PhD is a collaboration between university and industry and the Students matriculate at a university but work in a industry for 3 years.
The industrial PhD programmes are managed by Innovation Fund Denmark. The deadline of this programmes in 2017 is 20 March, until 12.00 PM. The candidates should applied for subsidy in the private sector during the deadline.
PhD students should spend 3-6 months of their PhD study period outside of the university where they are enrolled while still being paid by the host Danish university (not by the external host). This is in principle part of study program.
Comparison of PhD program in Denmark and Germany
In contrast to PhD studies in Germany, in Denmark is not possible to study more than 3 years (unless special conditions are met). Since the PhD students are employed in University of the completion of a research project in frame of PhD project, as soon as the student graduate the work contract terminates (even when it is shorter than 3 years). But in Germany, the program can be much longer and it is legal if PhD students does not get any financial support during his study! The other difference is that in Germany most of the PhD scholars are not considered as students and do not need to have any course in addition to their research activities. But in Denmark, PhD student should earn 30ETCS in addition to the completion of research project in order to graduate.